Brambilla Group

Effective Quantum Field Theories (EFTs) are the state-of-the-art tools for analyzing physical  systems that contain many  different energy or momentum scales. Such systems are the rule, rather than the exception, from the "high"-energy domain of  Particle and Nuclear Physics to the "low"-energy domain of molecular, atomic and condensed matter physics.

In our group and in collaboration with PD. Dr. Antonio Vairo, we study Effective Field Theories and Renormalization Techniques. Our research targets innovative ideas in particle and nuclear physics and envisages spin-offs to condensed-matter, atomic and molecular physics and quantum optics, see also the two events organized by us with this scope:

EUBET 2014: Applications of EFT to  particle physics, condensed matter and quantum optics and the symposium on Machine learning challenges in complex multiscale physical systems 

Some research topics of our group that well complement and integrate the activities  of the Munich Quantum Group are:


Nonrelativistic effective field theories

Observation of a Charged Charmonium like Structure in e+e− → π+π− J/ψ at √s =4.26  GeV (c.f. Phys.Rev.Lett. 110 (2013) 252001)

Nonrelativistic systems are of great importance in atomic, molecular, nuclear and particle physics, including the physics of beyond the Standard Model and dark matter models. Indeed, they compose a large part of all matter. Such systems need to be addressed with Nonrelativistic effective field theories (NREFT). In atomic physics, NREFTs derived from Quantum Electrodynamics   allow precision calculations of simple atoms like positronium, or exotic ones like pionium or muonic hydrogen. In particle physics, NREFTs like Heavy-Quark Effective Theory (HQET), Nonrelativistic Quantum Chromodynamics (NRQCD) and potential NRQCD (pNRQCD) exploit the fact that the top, bottom and chark quark masses are larger than the hadronic scale, to make model independent predictions addressing bound state energies, production and decay mechanism, and the form factors required by new-physics searches.


Our group had developed the NREFT called pNRQCD and several new nonrelativistic effective field theories for applications to several nonrelativistic systems. We recently developed an EFT for the new exotic resonances (X. Y. Z states) discovered at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and we obtained an EFT description of van der Walls and Born-Oppenheimer in QED.


Selected publications

  • Effective field theories for heavy quarkonium, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77 1423(2005) e-Print: hep-ph/0410047
  • Quarkonium Hybrids with Nonrelativistic Effective Field Theories Phys. Rev. D92 11 (2015) arXiv:1510.04299

QCD at finite temperatures

QCD phase diagram

Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the   theory which   describes the strong interactions between quarks and gluons, has a very particular feature called confinement.   This property states that quarks or gluons can never be isolated and observed   individually (at least at low energies), they are always confined inside bound states called hadrons.   However, at sufficiently high temperatures or densities confinement is broken and quarks and gluons appear outside of hadrons forming a new state of matter, the so-called quark-gluon-plasma (QGP) that is recreated in heavy ions collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. This QGP was the state of matter microseconds after the Big bang. This QGP poses many interesting questions. What is its Equation of State -  what are the pressure, energy and entropy densities of the thermal medium? How do these collective properties depend on the temperature?   How does the thermal medium affect properties of particles in the medium? What are the transport properties of quarks and hadrons in the medium and how can they be calculated?

The tools we use to investigate these issues are effective field theories (EFTs) and numerical lattice QCD. In a system of a few heavy quarks inside a plasma of light quarks and gluons there are several scales present: the heavy quark mass, the average distance between the heavy quarks, the temperature, thermal gluon masses, etc.

One of the phenomena that we study is the suppression of a quark-antiquark bound state inside the expanding quark gluon plasma implementing effective field theory techniques in the framework of open quantum system. This is a non-equilibrium problem and cannot be directly attacked with lattice techniques.


Selected publications

  • Quarkonium suppression in heavy-ion collisions: an open quantum system approach arXiv:1612.07248
  • Static quark-antiquark pairs at finite temperature, Phys.Rev. D78 014017 (2008) arXiv:0804.0993

Computational Tools

Supercomputer SUPERMUC at LRZ Munich

Lattice gauge theory formulates quantum field theory on a grid in spacetime.   This approach enables a numerical treatment of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD-the field theory of strong interactions) and   has made great strides in the past decade.

In our group, we   explore the interplay of effective quantum field theory and numerical lattice gauge theory and, thus, nurture two of the most powerful theoretical tools and brings them together in a fruitful way. Effective field theories are based on factorization of scales and in strongly interacting theories some low energy scales are nonperturbative demanding a numerical computational method. For this reason, we started the TUMQCD Collaboration (in collaboration with P. Petreczky from BNL, USA and Kronfeld from Fermilab USA) that performs calculations on computing resources managed and allocated by C2PAP and Supermuc at the Garching Campus.

The present pivotal interests of the TUMQCD collaboration are:

-  A comprehensive understanding of heavy hadrons at zero and finite temperature, as well as of the QCD vacuum at zero temperature and the thermal QCD medium at finite temperature.

-  Precise determinations of the standard model parameters. Deeper insights in this area of studies is expected to have an immediate impact on the analysis of experimental results from facilities at LHC, B factories, as well as τ and charm factories, such as CMS, ATLAS, Belle and BES


Selected publications

  • QCD and Strongly Coupled Gauge Theories: Challenges and Perspectives, Eur. Phys. J. C74 2981(2014) arXiv:1404.3723
  • Polyakov loop in 2+1 flavor QCD from low to high temperatures, Phys. Rev. D93 114502 (2016) arXiv:1603.06637
  • Determination of αlphas from the QCD static energy, Phys. Rev. D86 114031 (2012) arXiv:1205.6155

Prof. Nora Brambilla

Address:

Department of Physics, T0f
TU Munich
Garching, 85747, Germany

nora.brambilla(at)tum.de

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